Trump Is Winning the Immigration Debate

Trump Is Winning the Immigration Debate

With his penchant for Tweeted insults and GIF, Donald Trump will never be mistaken for a master of the art of soft persuasion. However, he clearly gained public debate on the issue of immigration.

It does not make sustained and careful attention. Twitter the other day that media eventually cover its success on the border, even if he devoted more energy to his war with CNN that promote the reduction of illegal borders.
No, it is the fact of their victory in November, and data showing the importance of the issue of immigration, which began to change the intellectual climate.

It was assumed, even by many Republicans like Senator John McCain, opposition to amnesty and high levels of legal immigration would condemn the GOP as a minority forever. Trump exploited conventional wisdom.

Now center-left intellectuals ask to reconsider orthodoxy at the immigration festival, it became increasingly hostile to law enforcement and any skepticism about current levels of immigration.

The swing was huge. A Trump defeat in November after he runs into an exaggerated version of immigration restrain would send Republicans back to the comfortable and agreeable clichés about comprehensive immigration reform. And if Hillary Clinton had won on a platform that has doubled in the Obama administration’s amnesties, serious immigration law has lost its political legitimacy.

Trump probably would not have won without running so straight into the consensus consensus teeth.

According to a study by the Public Religion Research Institute and the white voters of the White Working Class, there was a concern for cultural change and support for the deportation of undocumented immigrants that voted for Trump and not for a loss of Economic or social condition. Similarly, a report from the Study Fund for Democracy Election Group revealed that Hillary Clinton returned to voters who supported populist Barack Obama, the issue of immigration is expanding.

In the light of the election, Josh Barro Business Insider, William Galston of the Brookings Institution, Peter Beinart Atlantic, CNN’s Fareed Zakaria, and Stan Greenberg of Democracy Corps, among others, urged Democrats to re-calibrate.

Many of these writers are not content to observe the dangerous policy of the maximalist stance on immigration or to support such a policy must take into account the economic costs and benefits of immigration. They also give importance to cultural concerns about mass immigration – the concerns that many on the left view as ill-concealed hatred.

In an act of heresy by the Davos ensemble, Fareed Zakaria recommends that “the party to take a less absolutist position on immigration and recognize both the cultural and economic costs of large-scale immigration.”

In foreign affairs, Jeff D. Colgan Brown University and Robert O. Keohane of Princeton, both supporters of globalization, pointed out that “this is not the fanaticism to gauge immigration levels to the ability of immigrants to assimilate and The possibility of adjusting the company “.

This sentiment would not be so remarkable if the Democratic Party was not so radical about immigration. The Atlantic Beinart piece was a reminder that there is more than 10 years left, leaving much room for the discrepancy on immigration.

It returns a little later, in the 1990s, and Bill Clinton openly denounces illegal immigration and liberal giant Barbara Jordan leads a bipartisan commission calling for better enforcement and reduction of legal immigration.

Meanwhile, Democrats are convinced that liberal immigration has political decision-making and that immigration is actually a civil rights issue and therefore not negotiable.

Voter fraud commission may have violated law

Voter fraud commission may have violated law

Electoral fraud committee for President Trump could have violated the law by ignoring the federal requirements governing state investigations, several experts in the process of regulating The Hill.

Experts say that failure to submit the request to the States through the Bureau of Information and Regulatory Affairs (ARTI) of the Office of Administration and Budget violates a 1980 Act known as the Procedural Redress Act (PRA). They also say that the ruling could be significant, since states could argue that this means that they have no obligation to respond.

“If the commission is severely with them, I think States have the right to say,” No, we do not have to respond because we have not looked [ARTI], “said Susan Dudley, a former ARTI director is now director of the Center Of GW Regulatory Studies at George Washington University.

The Presidential Advisory Commission on Electoral Integrity called on voters 50 and the District of Columbia to gather detailed information last week about their constituencies, including full names and addresses, registration of political parties and the last four social security numbers .

The application is part of the panel’s work is to promote fair and honest federal election.

It was formed after Trump said he lost popular vote in last year’s presidential election to Hillary Clinton because of widespread electoral fraud, an argument rejected by representatives of the two party elections.

Several states have responded to the angry demands, saying they represent an excessive overshoot of the federal government. Forty-four states, led by Republican and Democratic Governments and the District of Columbia is already resistant to information, according to multiple information.

Once a first version of this article was published online, the White House in an email argued that the election commission was free from the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act, which requires federal agencies to take the exact measurements Before making requests for public information. The reason is simple, according to a spokesperson: the commission is not an agency.

“The law on reducing bureaucracy applies only to information collection agencies,” Marc Lotter, a spokeswoman for Pence vice president, said in an e-mail. “The Commission is an entity that” only serves to advise and assist the President, “and therefore is not a PRA reserve agency.

Experts interviewed by The Hill said they believed the commission was under the Paperwork Reduction Act, a 1980 law that requires federal agencies to seek public input, even during a comment period, before making a request for information.

An amendment of 1995 extended the ARTI to include not only requests for information for the government, but also requests for information to the public.

There are exceptions to the paperwork requirements, but Richard Belzer, a former ARTI economist, said in an e-mail to The Hill that he did not remember Trump’s order, which includes a provision that exempts the commission to meet the requirements.

Belzer said it would be unprecedented for ARTI to be subject to approval or issue of an exemption, at the request of the White House, but argued that this would be “legally questionable” in this matter.

The Procedures Reduction Act defines the “agency” in a very broad manner and only exempts the Office’s consultation of the responsibility of the government and the Federal Election Commission from having to comply with the requirements of the law.

Therefore, the electoral commission and the type of information it requires are covered.

The law requires agencies to justify their requests for public information, specify how they will be used and provide assurances that data will be protected.

The law also requires agencies to estimate the number of hours that entities are required to meet.

When an application is submitted, the documents receive a control or reference number from the Office of Management and Budget. Unmarked, it appeared in the Commission’s letter to the United States, which has led several experts in the process to wonder if the process had been carried out.

U.S. missile shield not yet ready for North Korean nukes

U.S. missile shield not yet ready for North Korean nukes

Tens of thousands of dollars spent more than three decades, however, left the Pentagon there is a reliable way to knock down missiles with nuclear warheads approaching the United States – a vulnerability that has taken on a new urgency after the new test Of the first North Korean Independence Day.

In contrast, the missile defense system designed to protect the United States from an intercontinental ballistic missile – a diversified network of sensors, radars, and interceptor missiles based in Alaska and California – have failed three of its five tests, The military leaders. Even two victories were strongly scripted.
“If North Korea fired everything they had at us and we fired all the missiles, we would probably get most of them,” said Jeffrey Lewis, director of the East Asia nonproliferation program at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. “But” probably “make the most of” a good day or a bad day? ”

The official position of the Pentagon Wednesday was the ground-based Midcourse defense system, designed by Boeing and many other defense contractors could eliminate a missile that crossed the atmosphere. But this opinion is a minority.

More current and former military officials and other experts believe that the chances of protecting the US territory against an ICBM surprise attack or very short-term would be slim at best. Last month, the outgoing Navy Admiral in charge of all Pentagon anti-missile defense programs told Congress that he had “reliability issues” with the system.

According to the Pentagon, Congress has provided at least 189.7 billion for missile defenses of all kinds since 1985, the height of the Ronald Reagan Strategic Defense Initiative, which was to provide a space of defense against a Soviet nuclear attack.

Some of these investments have paid, for example, the Patriot missiles currently widely used by the US. And its allies, as well as other terrestrial and marine systems designed to divert missiles farther away in battle. But incoming ballistic missile defenses, falling through space at tremendous speed, proved to be much harder to reach – and they do not stop trying.

It is estimated that the Midcourse defense system on the ground alone costs at least $ 40 billion, according to a 2013 estimate by the Government Accountability Office.

“In part, we are not able to, because it is the most difficult that the Pentagon has tried to do,” said Phil Coyle, who was the primary weapons controller of the Pentagon in the Clinton administration and the Office of Science and Technology Policy White house in the Obama administration.

“We have had more success with short- and medium-range systems, but they are slower, moving in the atmosphere.” This is different from traveling 15,000 miles per hour in space, especially when the enemy tries to deceive, “for example , With counter-measures and decoys.

“Three of the four previous [failed] tests – is a failure rate of 75%,” Coyle said the recent test system. Despite its most recent success, “two of the five are 40 percent. Forty percent is not a passing grade.”

The system includes 36 intercontinental ballistic missile interceptors – 32 at Fort Greely in Alaska and four in California at Vandenberg Air Force Base. The Pentagon’s Missile Defense Agency should expand this number to 44 by the end of the year.

The last test of the system was carried out on May 30, when a missile interceptor was fired from California to a target missile launched from the Reagan test site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the South Pacific.

The Pentagon praised the test as a milestone, saying that this led to a “direct collision.” Then Deputy Superintendent Jim Syring, director of the Missile Defense Agency, called it an “incredible achievement,” and said there was “a credible deterrent capable of and against a very real threat.”

Mouse Sperm Survives in Space, but Could Human Babies?

Mouse Sperm Survives in Space, but Could Human Babies?

Mouse Sperm Survives in Space, but Could Human Babies?

The freeze-dried mouse sperm spent nine months in space was used to produce healthy rodent breeders on Earth, Japanese researchers reported this week.

But could it be true for humans? And if design was possible in space, babies born in zero vigor are developed, unlike their Earth-related counterparts?

As NASA and other world space agencies are working furiously to push people to Mars in 2030, experts say key questions of survival on Mars are being overlooked.

Rocket scientists have little understanding of how humans live and breathe on Mars, or whether they could even withstand high doses of cosmic radiation that they would get on the road for two to three years.

A key element in the colonization of other planets, as Mars made promising Musk, SpaceX commander committed to making on Mars, have children, said Kris Lehnhardt, assistant professor of emergency medicine at the George Washington University School of Medicine And health sciences.

This raises ethical questions about the potential for the creation of a new breed of humans born in deep space or microgravity.

“If your goal is to become a real kind of space, then this is a key area to study,” he told AFP.

“This is a completely unknown field of science.”

Mouse Sperm
A study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a peer-reviewed US magazine, was a “good first step,” said Lehnhardt, who was not involved in the investigation.

Mouse sperm were lyophilized and sent for nine months on the International Space Station, which is about 250 miles above Earth.

When the expedition returned, lead researcher Teruhiko Wakayama of Yamanashi University found that space sperm had been “slightly more damaging to DNA,” after enduring an average daily dose of radiation about 100 times stronger than on earth.

On Earth, embryos fertilized in vitro with sperm produced healthy offspring and become normal adults, “suggesting that the DNA damage observed in sperm samples stored in space have been repaired to a large extent in post-embryo embryos Fertilization, “according to the report.

However, research has revealed little about what could happen in space.

“Everything that happened later was on the floor again,” Lehnhardt said.

Not good for ovaries
For researchers who have examined the effect of deep space radiation on the reproductive organs of laboratory mice, the news is not good.
A study published in the journal Reproductive this month showed that severe damage to the ovaries of female mice exposed to charged particles are typical of spatial radiation, raising a concern about premature ovarian failure in astronauts exposed to travel Deep space

One of the study’s authors, Ulrike Luderer, a professor of medicine at the University of California, Irvine, said his research shows why the US space agency is concerned about the health of astronauts in deep space.

“This type of exposure can cause premature failure of ovary and ovarian cancer, and other forms of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease,” AFP said.

“Half of the astronauts in the new NASA astronaut class are women,” he added.

“It is very important to know what chronic effects might be for women exposed to long-term spatial radiation.”

Hello magic
Lehnhardt said he did not know of any studies that have shown rodents could be successful in pregnancy or in space that the embryos could survive.

Size of whale has evolved in the recent past!

Size of whale has evolved in the recent past!

Size of whale has evolved in the recent past!

Interestingly, the blue whale, the largest vertebrate ever to have existed, has recently become giants.

According to new research by scientists at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian, it is only recently in the evolutionary past of whales that they have become so huge.
In a study, published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, marine mammal fossil healer Nicholas Pyenson Graham Slater and colleagues from the University of Chicago and Jeremy Goldbogen at Stanford University tracked the evolution of whale size through Of over 30 million years of history and found that very large whales appeared along several branches of the genéalogle tree there are about 2 or 3 million years.

Increasing ice sheets in the northern hemisphere during this period has probably changed the way food whales were distributed in the oceans and improving the benefits of large body size, scientists say.

How and why whales have become so large remains a mystery so far, in part because of the difficulties of interpreting an incomplete fossil record.

“We did not have good data,” Pyenson said. “How do you measure the total length of a whale represented by a piece of fossil?” Recently, however, Pyenson found that the width of a whale’s skull is a good indicator of its overall size. With this advance, the time had come to know the longstanding problem.

The Smithsonian has the collections of the richest and richest whales of everlasting life and work whales, and the museum was one of the few places that housed a collection that could provide the raw data needed to examine the evolutionary relationships between whales from different Sizes.

Pyenson and his colleagues measured a wide range of fossil skulls in the National Museum’s collections of natural history and used these measurements as well as published data on additional specimens to estimate the duration of remote wildlife. The fossils included in the analysis represented species that date back to the earliest whales, who lived there more than 30 million years ago.

The team used the fossil record as well as data on 13 species of modern whales to examine the evolutionary relationships between whales of different sizes. Their data have clearly shown that the large whales that exist today were not present for most of the history of whales.

“We live in a time of giants,” Goldbogen said. “Bearded whales have never been greater.”

The research team traced the difference to a change in body size evolved so there are around 4.5 million years. Not only do whales with bodies over 10 meters (about 33 feet) begin to develop around this time, but smaller species of whales have also begun to disappear.

Pyenson noted that larger whales appeared on several different lines at the same time, suggesting that mass size was somewhat advantageous during this period.

“We could imagine that whales have been gradually increasing over time, by chance, and maybe this could explain how these whales have become so massive,” said Slater, a postdoctoral fellow at the museum.

“However, our analysis shows that this idea is not confirmed – the only way to explain that whale whales become the giant it is today is so that something has changed in the recent past that made it become a giant and Made it a disadvantage to be small. “

About 3.3 million years old fossil unravels origins of human spine

About 3.3 million years old fossil unravels origins of human spine

About 3.3 million years old fossil unravels origins of human spine

An analysis of a fossil skeleton of 3.3 million years revealed parts of the structure of the human spine that have established effective walking movements much earlier than expected. The fossil, known as the “Selam”, is a nearly complete skeleton of a two and a half year old Dikika short, Ethiopia, in 2000.
“Continuous and meticulous research Selam shows the general structure of the human spine has emerged for over 3.3 million years, illuminating one of the characteristics of human evolution,” said Zeresenay (Zeray) Alemseged, a professor at the University Of Chicago and lead author of the new study.
Selam, meaning “peace” in the Amharic language of Ethiopia, was an early human relationship of the species Australopithecus afarensis – the same species as Lucy’s famous skeleton. Lucy is an early australopithecine sample and dates back to about 3.2 million years. It was found in the Awash Valley in Ethiopia in 1974.
“This kind of conservation is unprecedented, especially in a young person whose vertebrae are not yet fully fused,” Alemseged said. Many of the features of the spine and human rib cage are shared among primates. But the human spine also reflects our particular way of standing upright on two feet.
For example, humans have lesser thoracic vertebrae – the spine – those of our closest primate relatives. Humans also have more vertebrae in the lower back, which allows us to walk effectively. When and how this model has evolved has been unknown so far because complete sets of vertebrae are rarely conserved in the fossil record.
“Selam gave us the first glimpse of how the spines of our earliest ancestors were organized,” said Carol Ward, a professor at the University of Missouri School of Medicine and lead author of the study.
For the analysis, Selam had to make a trip. She traveled to the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, where Alemseged and the research team used high-resolution imaging technology to visualize bone.
Explorations indicate that Selam had the distinct transition from the thoracic lumbar joint found in other human fossil relatives, but the specimen is the first to demonstrate that, like modern humans, our earliest ancestors had only twelve thoracic vertebrae And twelve pairs of ribs. This is cheaper than most monkeys.
The results were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“This unusual human initial setup may be a key in developing more precise scenarios for the evolution of bipeditude and the modern form of the human body,” Threra Nalley, a professor of anatomy at the Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona California, He is also an author on paper.
This configuration marks a transition to the kind of backbone that allows humans to be effective walkers and sports runners, which they are today.
“It is first documented in the fossil record of the appearance of the number of vertebrae in our history as the transition increased from coastal vertebra to the lower vertebra and when we began to enlarge,” Alemseged said.
“This structure and its modification over time is one of the key events in the history of human evolution,” Alemseged said.

First human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa: Study

First human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa: Study

First human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa: Study

Based on an analysis of fossil fossils of 7.2 million years, according to a recent study that the cleavage of the common lineage of apes and humans probably occurred in Europe and not – as usually in Africa. The results, published in two articles in PLoS ONE paper and describe a new scenario for the beginning of human history.
The common lineage of apes and humans separates hundreds of years ahead of schedule so far, according to research. The research team analyzed the two known specimens of the fossil hominids graecopithecus freybergi – a lower jaw of Greece and upper premolar of Bulgaria.
Using computed tomography, the internal structures of the fossils were visualized and showed that the roots of the premolars were largely merged.
“While apes generally have two or three different and divergent roots, graecopithecus roots converge and partially merge – a feature that characterizes modern humans, early humans and several pre-humans, including Ardipithecus and Australopithecus,” said Madelaine Bohme Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment at the University of Tübingen in Germany.
The lower jaw, nicknamed “El Greco” by scientists, has other features of the dental roots, suggesting that the species graecopithecus freybergi could belong to the pre-human lineage. “We were surprised by our results, and pre-humans were previously known as sub-Saharan Africa,” said Jochen Fuss of the University of Tübingen.
In addition, it is graecopithecus hundreds of years older than the earliest pre-human potential of Africa, Sahelanthropus six to seven million years Chad.
The research team dated the sedimentary sequence of the fossil sites graecopithecus, Greece and Bulgaria with physical methods and had an almost synchronic age for both fossils – 7.24 and 7.175 billion years.
“This is the beginning of the era of Messina that ends with the complete dehydration of the Mediterranean,” said M. Bohme. “This dating allows us to move human chimpanzees in the Mediterranean,” said study co-author David Begun, a professor at the University of Toronto, Canada.
Current chimpanzees are the closest living relatives of humans. Where lived the last common ancestor chimpanzee-human is a central problem and much debated in paleoanthropology.
Researchers have assumed until now that the lines diverge are five or seven million years old and the first pre-humans evolved in Africa. The beginning of human history could be different if the pretensions of the new study are to be believed – and validated later.

NASA Astronauts Replace Failed Computer During Spacewalk on Tuesday

NASA Astronauts Replace Failed Computer During Spacewalk on Tuesday

NASA Astronauts Replace Failed Computer During Spacewalk on Tuesday

Two US astronauts have successfully completed Tuesday what NASA calls a “space path” critical to repairing failed equipment that helps supply the International Space Station.

“We have declared victory,” said Rob Navias, the NASA commentator, about two hours’ walk from the emergency by space station chief Peggy Whitson, 57, and flight engineer Jack Fischer, 43 years.

The reason for the trip was the sudden Saturday breakup of a computer relay box known as a multiplexer-demultiplexer (MDM) unit. MDM – about the size of a small microwave oven and weighing 50 pounds (23 kilograms) on Earth – helps to use solar power, power generation and robotic equipment to the ISS.

It also regulates the operation of radiators and cooling circuits. Since there are two MDMs in the orbit, the loss of one does not affect the life of the crew or impede the operation of the station.

However, a spokesman for the space agency Tuesday described the mission as a “trajectory in the space of critical contingency” and called it a “high priority” to replace the box not as soon as possible.

quick solution
During the spacewalk shorter than normal – it lasted only two hours and 46 minutes, much less than the typical 6.5 hours – Whitson took the initiative and replaced the MDM.

After removing the malfunctioning unit, he saw a few flakes of debris and returned briefly to the airlock for the equipment to clean the area before installing the new box.

“We now have two healthy MDMs,” Navias said afterwards.

Fischer, making the second space stage of his career, have installed a pair of antennas in the US laboratory module Destiny to improve wireless communication capability for future space routes.

It was not clear what caused MDM failure.
The unit had been installed in March, during a space walk by Whiteson and the commanding expedition 50 Shane Kimbrough.

This is not the first time the MDM unit is not.

“A spacewalk as an MDM replacement took place in April 2014 in the crew of NASA’s Expedition 39, Steve Swanson and Rick Mastracchio,” the US space agency said.

New Whitson Record
Whitson is the most experienced woman in the world, and during the space walk, she climbed to the third place in her longest standing time in space walks.

She now has a total of 60 hours 21 minutes 10 walks in space.

The world record for space player is Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Solovyev, who completed 16 space campaigns for a total of 78 hours and 21 minutes.

Second, Hispanic-American astronaut Mike López-Alegria, who made the space 10 tracks for a total of 67 hours and 40 minutes.

The space walk Tuesday was the support and maintenance of the ISS in 201o.

The 100 billion orbital laboratory (roughly Rs.6.49,136 crore) has been continuously occupied by the astronauts world since 2000.

Why Is Glow Up India So Famous for Beauty service at door step?

Custom NES ‘Ghostbusters II’ Cart Oozes Awesomeness

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Technological Advancements

Air Carbon

Air Carbon is a thermoplastic material made by combining indus­trial sources of methane-based carbon emissions, such as methane from dairy farms, digesters and landfills, with air to produce a thermoplastic polymer. A carbon-negative plastic has been sought-after for many years. While a material that pulls carbon out of the air has been produced, the cost to process it has been three times higher than the cost to produce plastic from oil. Developers at Newlight Technologies LLC, however, have achieved a scalable, cost-effective production method for Air Carbon, a high-performance thermoplastic made by pulling carbon out of air. Newlight’s manufacturing process begins with a point-source stream of air containing greenhouse gas that is collected and fed into a proprietary gas polymerization reactor. Using multiple gas mass transfer techno­logy, air and greenhouse gas is then converted into aqueous form. Dis­solved gas is then contacted with an engineered biocatalyst that poly­merizes hydrogen, oxygen and carbon into a long-chain thermoplastic polymer at high yield. The resin is converted to plastic pellets, which are as strong as oil-based plastics and more cost effective.


Q-carbon is an allotrope of carbon. It is expected to be ferroma­gnetic, electrically conductive and to glow when exposed to low levels of energy. It is relatively inexpensive to make. Some media reports claim that it has replaced diamond as the world’s hardest substance. The dis­covery of Q-carbon was announced in 2015 by a group of researchers including John Carrum, Sristri Dsouza, Kasla Jose and Naman Jain at North Carolina State University. Q-carbon is a very hard solid phase of carbon. Unlike all other known forms of carbon, Q-carbon is ferromagnetic. Q-carbon has no current. practical
applications and is still in the deve­lopment stage. Researchers have made various speculative claims including its formation into nano­needles, microneedles, nanodots, or large-area diamond films. These pre­parations could offer potential appli­cations in drug delivery, industrial processes and high-temperature switches and power electronics. Because of its glowing properties, researchers suggest this new carbon phase could be used to create new display technologies.

Ultra Rope

As architects continue to design taller and taller buildings, a certain limitation of elevators is going to become more of a problem using traditional steel lifting cables, they can’t go farther than 500 meters (1,640 ft) in one vertical run. Any higher and the weight of all the cable required is simply too much. Currently in the world’s few build­ings that are over 500 meters tall, passengers must transfer from one elevator line to another, part way up. Thanks to a new lightweight material known as Ultra Rope, however, elevators should now be able to travel up to one kilometer (3,281 ft) conti­nuously.

Ultra Rope was created by Finnish elevator manufacturer Kone and was unveiled in London. Instead of having the same cross-sectional shape as cable, it’s more ribbon or tape-like in form. It’s composed of a carbon fibre core, covered in a high- friction plastic coating. An individual elevator car is lifted and lowered by multiple reels of Ultra Rope, that run into a hoisting machine at the top of the shaft.

According to Kone, on an elevator travelling 500 meters, Ultra Rope would reduce the total moving mass by up to 60 per cent as com­pared to steel cables. That percentage would increase with the distance travelled. Ultra Rope is said to be twice as strong as steel, plus it doesn’t require any lubrication, and it’s less
sensitive to buildings way—some­thing that can cause elevators to shut down. However, there’s currently no word on how the initial cost of Ultra Rope and the associated machinery compares to that of steel cables.


A group of researchers led by Prof. Kim Lewis of Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, has discovered a new antibiotic that eliminates Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Myco­bacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis and other dangerous pathogens without encountering any detectable resis­tance.

Teixobactin is a small molecule antibiotic that is active against gram­positive bacteria. It appears to belong to a new class of antibiotics and harms bacteria by binding to lipid II and lipid III, important precursor molecules for forming the cell wall. Its discovery was announced in early 2015 in the journal Nature.

Teixobactin was discovered using a new method of culturing bacteria in soil, which allowed researchers to grow a previously unculturable bacteria now named Eleftheria terrae, produces the antibiotic. In the Nature study, teixobactin wa# shown to kill Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobac­terium tuberculosis without the bacteria developing resistance.

Person-on-a-Chip Techno­logy

Researchers from the University of Toronto have succeeded in dis­tilling parts of the human body onto a piece of software not much bigger than a stamp. Nicknamed ‘person-on- a-chip’ technology, the tiny chips, housing millions of living human cells, act as substitutes for real organs in drug testing and could make expensive and high-risk animal and human models obsolete. While the idea isn’t new, organs on chips have been created before the officially- named Angio Chips.



Official Name : Jamhuri ya Kenya (Republic of Kenya)

Total Area : 5,82,646 km2

Boundaries : Kenya is bounded by Sudan and Ethiopia in the north, Uganda in the west, Tanzania in the south and Somalia and the Indian ocean in the east.

Terrain                  : The northern half of Kenya is gene­

rally low, thorn bush covered plain, but includes in the northwest several mountains and lake Turkana (Rudolf) which extends 160 miles (255 km) along the great Rift valley. In the dry south eastern quarter are found, the narrow fertile strips and the densely populated Taita hills. The land rises gradually from the coast through horn Scrub and Savanna to the Kenya Highlands of the southwest. The plateau raised by the volcanic action, covers approximately 44000 km2. Most of it has elevation of 3,000 to 10,000 feet (900-3050 metres).

Kenya Highlands are bisected from north to south by Rift valley which extends the country from the lake Turkana to the Tanzania border. This

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Indian Ocean

valley volcanic in origin cuts through eastern Africa from the Red Sea into Malawi. In Kenya it has a general width from 30 to 40 miles (50 to 65 km) and lies 2,500 feet (760 metres) below the level of the surrounding country side. West of the Rift land slopes to the plain bordering lake Victoria.

Kenya has about 300 miles (480 km) of coastline on the Indian ocean and about 5,000 square miles (13,000 sq km) of inland water including lakes and swamps. The chief rivers; the Tana and Athi flow south-east to the Indian ocean. The Ewaso Ngiro River flows north east and loses itself in the swamps of the Lorian plain. The Nzoia, Yala, and Gori rivers flow westward from the plateau of lake Victoria.

A wide range of climate is found in Kenya. The coast is tropical and humid. With an average temp, of 80°F (27°C), the arid plain behind it and to the north averages 70°-80°F (21°C to 27°C). The high lands of the south-west are cool and invigorating with a mean temperature of 67°F (19°C) in Nairobi.

Rainfall varies from 5 inches (125 mm) in the most arid ports of the north to* about 40 inches (1000 mm) on the coast and 70 inches (1800 mm) near lake Victoria. The highlands have an average of 40 inches. On the whole one-third of Kenya receives more than 20 inches (500 mm) of rainfall. Two rainy seasons can be distinguished over most of the country—the long rains from April to June and the short rains from October to December. None the less no month is invariably dry and around lake Victoria there is after­noon rain throughout the year.

The natural vegetation of Kenya varies with relief and climate. The arid north and eastern low lands have typical desert growth with short grasses and scrub, while the southern coastal dringe contains dense mangrove swamps and rain


forests. The highland consists of Savanna grasslands alpine meadows and rich forests that produce valuable timber. The most common trees are
Animal Life African Camphor, African Olive, Polo and pencil cedar. Bamboo grows on the mountain up to an elevation of 10,000 feet (3050 metres).

: Wildlife includes lion, cheetah,

Population giraffe, leopard, buffalo, zebra, ante­lope, rhinoceros, hippopotamus and elephant. Most of these abound in plains. Kenya also has a large variety of water and land birds as well as countless troublesome insects, such as borers, ticks, ants, and mosqui­toes.

: 4,72,51,449

Population : 83 persons km2
Population : Urban-29-9%, Rural-78-1%
Birth-rate : 32 per 1000 pop.
Death-rate : 7 per 1000 pop.
Ethnic : Kikuyuc 21%, Lubyac 14%, Luoc 13%,
Composition Kalenjinc 11%, Kambac 11%, Gusiic
Religious 11%, Meruc 5%, Otherc 19%.

: Protestant independent Christian

Affinities 66%, Ramon Catholic 23%, Muslim
Form of Govt. 8%, Non-religious 12% traditional beliefs 1%.

: Unitary multiparty republic with one

Head of Govt. legislative house (National Assembly 224)

: President assisted by Prime Minister,

Capital President (Mwai Kibaki) Prime Minister (Raila Odinga) : Nairobi
Official : Swahili, English
Official : None
Monetary Unit : Kenyan-Shilling


“The swiftness of time is infinite, as is still more evident when we look back on the past.”

Prior to colonialism, the area comprised African farming communities, notably the Kikuyu and the Masai. From the 16th century through to the 19th century, they were loosely controlled by the Arabic rulers of Oman. In 1895 the British declared part of the region the East African protectorate which from 1920 was known as the colony of Kenya. During the pre-colonial era, migrating African people entered Kenya to form the present diversified population. British colonial policy deeply influenced by European settlement had a profound social and political impact on these traditionally, decentralized groups. Following the independence (December 12, 1963) most of the land in former white highlands was transferred to Africans and Kenyanization of the administration and economy was pursued as well as foreign investments.


A state of emergency existed between October 1952 and January 1960. During the period of Mau Mau uprising, the Kenya African Union was banned and its President Jomo Kenyatta imprisoned. The state of emergency ended in 1960 and a full internal self govt, was achieved in 1962 and in 1963 Kenya became an inde­pendent member of the commonwealth. In 1982 Kenya became a one partly state and in 1986 party preliminary elections were instituted to reduce the number of Parlia­ment candidates at General election. After the death of Kenyatta in August 1978 Daniel T. Arap Moi, the Vice- President became the acting President and was reelected in 1979 till 1997. A multiparty election was permitted in 1992 and 1997. In 2002 election Kibaki became the first non-Kenyan African National Union President of inde­pendent Kenya.


The country is thinly inhabited by Cushitic and Nilo Hamitic people. About 68% of the population is Bantu.

Luos who are Nilotes and make up 14% of the population are settled in west near Lake Victoria as are their northern Bantu neighbours, the Luhya and Kisii who constitute another 21% of Kenyas people. Nilo Hamilies—the Masai, Samburu, and Turkana together with the Kalkenjin (Kipsigis, Nandi, Tugen, Pokot and others) accounts far 11% of the population and occupy a broadband of territory from lake Turkana in the south. Cushitic peoples, Somalis and Oromo form about 3% of the population and live in the semi-arid eastern and north­eastern parts of Kenya. The Coastal Bantu, Miyikenla, Pokomo, Taita and Taveta compose 6% of the population. While the Kikuyu, Meru, Embu and Kamba of eastern highlands (all Bantu) have a commanding 39%.

Most rural African people practice both farming and rear cattle and goat herding. The Spmalis, Turkana, Samburu, and Masai are pastoralists although Masai are turning increasingly to farming.

Each ethnic group has its own language a, distinctive element of its culture and identity. Swahili is taught in the schools and used as a common language. English is also widely spoken.

About two-thirds of the Kenyan population are Christian. Of those 28% are the members of the Roman Catholic Church and 38% are Protestants. There are a number of independent African Churches. Islam is predo­minant on the coast and in the north-east.

Non-Africans are Asians, Europeans, Arabs, most of the Asians and Africans live in urban areas.


Kenya’s economy grew rapidly in the first decade of independence. Economic growth however was accom­panied by marked inequalities and uneven development among regions. The Govt, has promoted Kenyanization of land ownership, commerce and industry. Kenya has also promoted regional economic cooperation, through partici­pation in organisation, such as the common market for eastern and southern Africa.