About 3.3 million years old fossil unravels origins of human spine

About 3.3 million years old fossil unravels origins of human spine

About 3.3 million years old fossil unravels origins of human spine

An analysis of a fossil skeleton of 3.3 million years revealed parts of the structure of the human spine that have established effective walking movements much earlier than expected. The fossil, known as the “Selam”, is a nearly complete skeleton of a two and a half year old Dikika short, Ethiopia, in 2000.
“Continuous and meticulous research Selam shows the general structure of the human spine has emerged for over 3.3 million years, illuminating one of the characteristics of human evolution,” said Zeresenay (Zeray) Alemseged, a professor at the University Of Chicago and lead author of the new study.
Selam, meaning “peace” in the Amharic language of Ethiopia, was an early human relationship of the species Australopithecus afarensis – the same species as Lucy’s famous skeleton. Lucy is an early australopithecine sample and dates back to about 3.2 million years. It was found in the Awash Valley in Ethiopia in 1974.
“This kind of conservation is unprecedented, especially in a young person whose vertebrae are not yet fully fused,” Alemseged said. Many of the features of the spine and human rib cage are shared among primates. But the human spine also reflects our particular way of standing upright on two feet.
For example, humans have lesser thoracic vertebrae – the spine – those of our closest primate relatives. Humans also have more vertebrae in the lower back, which allows us to walk effectively. When and how this model has evolved has been unknown so far because complete sets of vertebrae are rarely conserved in the fossil record.
“Selam gave us the first glimpse of how the spines of our earliest ancestors were organized,” said Carol Ward, a professor at the University of Missouri School of Medicine and lead author of the study.
For the analysis, Selam had to make a trip. She traveled to the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, where Alemseged and the research team used high-resolution imaging technology to visualize bone.
Explorations indicate that Selam had the distinct transition from the thoracic lumbar joint found in other human fossil relatives, but the specimen is the first to demonstrate that, like modern humans, our earliest ancestors had only twelve thoracic vertebrae And twelve pairs of ribs. This is cheaper than most monkeys.
The results were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“This unusual human initial setup may be a key in developing more precise scenarios for the evolution of bipeditude and the modern form of the human body,” Threra Nalley, a professor of anatomy at the Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona California, He is also an author on paper.
This configuration marks a transition to the kind of backbone that allows humans to be effective walkers and sports runners, which they are today.
“It is first documented in the fossil record of the appearance of the number of vertebrae in our history as the transition increased from coastal vertebra to the lower vertebra and when we began to enlarge,” Alemseged said.
“This structure and its modification over time is one of the key events in the history of human evolution,” Alemseged said.

First human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa: Study

First human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa: Study

First human ancestors evolved in Europe, not Africa: Study

Based on an analysis of fossil fossils of 7.2 million years, according to a recent study that the cleavage of the common lineage of apes and humans probably occurred in Europe and not – as usually in Africa. The results, published in two articles in PLoS ONE paper and describe a new scenario for the beginning of human history.
The common lineage of apes and humans separates hundreds of years ahead of schedule so far, according to research. The research team analyzed the two known specimens of the fossil hominids graecopithecus freybergi – a lower jaw of Greece and upper premolar of Bulgaria.
Using computed tomography, the internal structures of the fossils were visualized and showed that the roots of the premolars were largely merged.
“While apes generally have two or three different and divergent roots, graecopithecus roots converge and partially merge – a feature that characterizes modern humans, early humans and several pre-humans, including Ardipithecus and Australopithecus,” said Madelaine Bohme Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment at the University of Tübingen in Germany.
The lower jaw, nicknamed “El Greco” by scientists, has other features of the dental roots, suggesting that the species graecopithecus freybergi could belong to the pre-human lineage. “We were surprised by our results, and pre-humans were previously known as sub-Saharan Africa,” said Jochen Fuss of the University of Tübingen.
In addition, it is graecopithecus hundreds of years older than the earliest pre-human potential of Africa, Sahelanthropus six to seven million years Chad.
The research team dated the sedimentary sequence of the fossil sites graecopithecus, Greece and Bulgaria with physical methods and had an almost synchronic age for both fossils – 7.24 and 7.175 billion years.
“This is the beginning of the era of Messina that ends with the complete dehydration of the Mediterranean,” said M. Bohme. “This dating allows us to move human chimpanzees in the Mediterranean,” said study co-author David Begun, a professor at the University of Toronto, Canada.
Current chimpanzees are the closest living relatives of humans. Where lived the last common ancestor chimpanzee-human is a central problem and much debated in paleoanthropology.
Researchers have assumed until now that the lines diverge are five or seven million years old and the first pre-humans evolved in Africa. The beginning of human history could be different if the pretensions of the new study are to be believed – and validated later.

NASA Astronauts Replace Failed Computer During Spacewalk on Tuesday

NASA Astronauts Replace Failed Computer During Spacewalk on Tuesday

NASA Astronauts Replace Failed Computer During Spacewalk on Tuesday

Two US astronauts have successfully completed Tuesday what NASA calls a “space path” critical to repairing failed equipment that helps supply the International Space Station.

“We have declared victory,” said Rob Navias, the NASA commentator, about two hours’ walk from the emergency by space station chief Peggy Whitson, 57, and flight engineer Jack Fischer, 43 years.

The reason for the trip was the sudden Saturday breakup of a computer relay box known as a multiplexer-demultiplexer (MDM) unit. MDM – about the size of a small microwave oven and weighing 50 pounds (23 kilograms) on Earth – helps to use solar power, power generation and robotic equipment to the ISS.

It also regulates the operation of radiators and cooling circuits. Since there are two MDMs in the orbit, the loss of one does not affect the life of the crew or impede the operation of the station.

However, a spokesman for the space agency Tuesday described the mission as a “trajectory in the space of critical contingency” and called it a “high priority” to replace the box not as soon as possible.

quick solution
During the spacewalk shorter than normal – it lasted only two hours and 46 minutes, much less than the typical 6.5 hours – Whitson took the initiative and replaced the MDM.

After removing the malfunctioning unit, he saw a few flakes of debris and returned briefly to the airlock for the equipment to clean the area before installing the new box.

“We now have two healthy MDMs,” Navias said afterwards.

Fischer, making the second space stage of his career, have installed a pair of antennas in the US laboratory module Destiny to improve wireless communication capability for future space routes.

It was not clear what caused MDM failure.
The unit had been installed in March, during a space walk by Whiteson and the commanding expedition 50 Shane Kimbrough.

This is not the first time the MDM unit is not.

“A spacewalk as an MDM replacement took place in April 2014 in the crew of NASA’s Expedition 39, Steve Swanson and Rick Mastracchio,” the US space agency said.

New Whitson Record
Whitson is the most experienced woman in the world, and during the space walk, she climbed to the third place in her longest standing time in space walks.

She now has a total of 60 hours 21 minutes 10 walks in space.

The world record for space player is Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Solovyev, who completed 16 space campaigns for a total of 78 hours and 21 minutes.

Second, Hispanic-American astronaut Mike López-Alegria, who made the space 10 tracks for a total of 67 hours and 40 minutes.

The space walk Tuesday was the support and maintenance of the ISS in 201o.

The 100 billion orbital laboratory (roughly Rs.6.49,136 crore) has been continuously occupied by the astronauts world since 2000.

Why Is Glow Up India So Famous for Beauty service at door step?

Custom NES ‘Ghostbusters II’ Cart Oozes Awesomeness

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Technological Advancements

Air Carbon

Air Carbon is a thermoplastic material made by combining indus­trial sources of methane-based carbon emissions, such as methane from dairy farms, digesters and landfills, with air to produce a thermoplastic polymer. A carbon-negative plastic has been sought-after for many years. While a material that pulls carbon out of the air has been produced, the cost to process it has been three times higher than the cost to produce plastic from oil. Developers at Newlight Technologies LLC, however, have achieved a scalable, cost-effective production method for Air Carbon, a high-performance thermoplastic made by pulling carbon out of air. Newlight’s manufacturing process begins with a point-source stream of air containing greenhouse gas that is collected and fed into a proprietary gas polymerization reactor. Using multiple gas mass transfer techno­logy, air and greenhouse gas is then converted into aqueous form. Dis­solved gas is then contacted with an engineered biocatalyst that poly­merizes hydrogen, oxygen and carbon into a long-chain thermoplastic polymer at high yield. The resin is converted to plastic pellets, which are as strong as oil-based plastics and more cost effective.


Q-carbon is an allotrope of carbon. It is expected to be ferroma­gnetic, electrically conductive and to glow when exposed to low levels of energy. It is relatively inexpensive to make. Some media reports claim that it has replaced diamond as the world’s hardest substance. The dis­covery of Q-carbon was announced in 2015 by a group of researchers including John Carrum, Sristri Dsouza, Kasla Jose and Naman Jain at North Carolina State University. Q-carbon is a very hard solid phase of carbon. Unlike all other known forms of carbon, Q-carbon is ferromagnetic. Q-carbon has no current. practical
applications and is still in the deve­lopment stage. Researchers have made various speculative claims including its formation into nano­needles, microneedles, nanodots, or large-area diamond films. These pre­parations could offer potential appli­cations in drug delivery, industrial processes and high-temperature switches and power electronics. Because of its glowing properties, researchers suggest this new carbon phase could be used to create new display technologies.

Ultra Rope

As architects continue to design taller and taller buildings, a certain limitation of elevators is going to become more of a problem using traditional steel lifting cables, they can’t go farther than 500 meters (1,640 ft) in one vertical run. Any higher and the weight of all the cable required is simply too much. Currently in the world’s few build­ings that are over 500 meters tall, passengers must transfer from one elevator line to another, part way up. Thanks to a new lightweight material known as Ultra Rope, however, elevators should now be able to travel up to one kilometer (3,281 ft) conti­nuously.

Ultra Rope was created by Finnish elevator manufacturer Kone and was unveiled in London. Instead of having the same cross-sectional shape as cable, it’s more ribbon or tape-like in form. It’s composed of a carbon fibre core, covered in a high- friction plastic coating. An individual elevator car is lifted and lowered by multiple reels of Ultra Rope, that run into a hoisting machine at the top of the shaft.

According to Kone, on an elevator travelling 500 meters, Ultra Rope would reduce the total moving mass by up to 60 per cent as com­pared to steel cables. That percentage would increase with the distance travelled. Ultra Rope is said to be twice as strong as steel, plus it doesn’t require any lubrication, and it’s less
sensitive to buildings way—some­thing that can cause elevators to shut down. However, there’s currently no word on how the initial cost of Ultra Rope and the associated machinery compares to that of steel cables.


A group of researchers led by Prof. Kim Lewis of Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, has discovered a new antibiotic that eliminates Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Myco­bacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis and other dangerous pathogens without encountering any detectable resis­tance.

Teixobactin is a small molecule antibiotic that is active against gram­positive bacteria. It appears to belong to a new class of antibiotics and harms bacteria by binding to lipid II and lipid III, important precursor molecules for forming the cell wall. Its discovery was announced in early 2015 in the journal Nature.

Teixobactin was discovered using a new method of culturing bacteria in soil, which allowed researchers to grow a previously unculturable bacteria now named Eleftheria terrae, produces the antibiotic. In the Nature study, teixobactin wa# shown to kill Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobac­terium tuberculosis without the bacteria developing resistance.

Person-on-a-Chip Techno­logy

Researchers from the University of Toronto have succeeded in dis­tilling parts of the human body onto a piece of software not much bigger than a stamp. Nicknamed ‘person-on- a-chip’ technology, the tiny chips, housing millions of living human cells, act as substitutes for real organs in drug testing and could make expensive and high-risk animal and human models obsolete. While the idea isn’t new, organs on chips have been created before the officially- named Angio Chips.



Official Name : Jamhuri ya Kenya (Republic of Kenya)

Total Area : 5,82,646 km2

Boundaries : Kenya is bounded by Sudan and Ethiopia in the north, Uganda in the west, Tanzania in the south and Somalia and the Indian ocean in the east.

Terrain                  : The northern half of Kenya is gene­

rally low, thorn bush covered plain, but includes in the northwest several mountains and lake Turkana (Rudolf) which extends 160 miles (255 km) along the great Rift valley. In the dry south eastern quarter are found, the narrow fertile strips and the densely populated Taita hills. The land rises gradually from the coast through horn Scrub and Savanna to the Kenya Highlands of the southwest. The plateau raised by the volcanic action, covers approximately 44000 km2. Most of it has elevation of 3,000 to 10,000 feet (900-3050 metres).

Kenya Highlands are bisected from north to south by Rift valley which extends the country from the lake Turkana to the Tanzania border. This

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valley volcanic in origin cuts through eastern Africa from the Red Sea into Malawi. In Kenya it has a general width from 30 to 40 miles (50 to 65 km) and lies 2,500 feet (760 metres) below the level of the surrounding country side. West of the Rift land slopes to the plain bordering lake Victoria.

Kenya has about 300 miles (480 km) of coastline on the Indian ocean and about 5,000 square miles (13,000 sq km) of inland water including lakes and swamps. The chief rivers; the Tana and Athi flow south-east to the Indian ocean. The Ewaso Ngiro River flows north east and loses itself in the swamps of the Lorian plain. The Nzoia, Yala, and Gori rivers flow westward from the plateau of lake Victoria.

A wide range of climate is found in Kenya. The coast is tropical and humid. With an average temp, of 80°F (27°C), the arid plain behind it and to the north averages 70°-80°F (21°C to 27°C). The high lands of the south-west are cool and invigorating with a mean temperature of 67°F (19°C) in Nairobi.

Rainfall varies from 5 inches (125 mm) in the most arid ports of the north to* about 40 inches (1000 mm) on the coast and 70 inches (1800 mm) near lake Victoria. The highlands have an average of 40 inches. On the whole one-third of Kenya receives more than 20 inches (500 mm) of rainfall. Two rainy seasons can be distinguished over most of the country—the long rains from April to June and the short rains from October to December. None the less no month is invariably dry and around lake Victoria there is after­noon rain throughout the year.

The natural vegetation of Kenya varies with relief and climate. The arid north and eastern low lands have typical desert growth with short grasses and scrub, while the southern coastal dringe contains dense mangrove swamps and rain


forests. The highland consists of Savanna grasslands alpine meadows and rich forests that produce valuable timber. The most common trees are
Animal Life African Camphor, African Olive, Polo and pencil cedar. Bamboo grows on the mountain up to an elevation of 10,000 feet (3050 metres).

: Wildlife includes lion, cheetah,

Population giraffe, leopard, buffalo, zebra, ante­lope, rhinoceros, hippopotamus and elephant. Most of these abound in plains. Kenya also has a large variety of water and land birds as well as countless troublesome insects, such as borers, ticks, ants, and mosqui­toes.

: 4,72,51,449

Population : 83 persons km2
Population : Urban-29-9%, Rural-78-1%
Birth-rate : 32 per 1000 pop.
Death-rate : 7 per 1000 pop.
Ethnic : Kikuyuc 21%, Lubyac 14%, Luoc 13%,
Composition Kalenjinc 11%, Kambac 11%, Gusiic
Religious 11%, Meruc 5%, Otherc 19%.

: Protestant independent Christian

Affinities 66%, Ramon Catholic 23%, Muslim
Form of Govt. 8%, Non-religious 12% traditional beliefs 1%.

: Unitary multiparty republic with one

Head of Govt. legislative house (National Assembly 224)

: President assisted by Prime Minister,

Capital President (Mwai Kibaki) Prime Minister (Raila Odinga) : Nairobi
Official : Swahili, English
Official : None
Monetary Unit : Kenyan-Shilling


“The swiftness of time is infinite, as is still more evident when we look back on the past.”

Prior to colonialism, the area comprised African farming communities, notably the Kikuyu and the Masai. From the 16th century through to the 19th century, they were loosely controlled by the Arabic rulers of Oman. In 1895 the British declared part of the region the East African protectorate which from 1920 was known as the colony of Kenya. During the pre-colonial era, migrating African people entered Kenya to form the present diversified population. British colonial policy deeply influenced by European settlement had a profound social and political impact on these traditionally, decentralized groups. Following the independence (December 12, 1963) most of the land in former white highlands was transferred to Africans and Kenyanization of the administration and economy was pursued as well as foreign investments.


A state of emergency existed between October 1952 and January 1960. During the period of Mau Mau uprising, the Kenya African Union was banned and its President Jomo Kenyatta imprisoned. The state of emergency ended in 1960 and a full internal self govt, was achieved in 1962 and in 1963 Kenya became an inde­pendent member of the commonwealth. In 1982 Kenya became a one partly state and in 1986 party preliminary elections were instituted to reduce the number of Parlia­ment candidates at General election. After the death of Kenyatta in August 1978 Daniel T. Arap Moi, the Vice- President became the acting President and was reelected in 1979 till 1997. A multiparty election was permitted in 1992 and 1997. In 2002 election Kibaki became the first non-Kenyan African National Union President of inde­pendent Kenya.


The country is thinly inhabited by Cushitic and Nilo Hamitic people. About 68% of the population is Bantu.

Luos who are Nilotes and make up 14% of the population are settled in west near Lake Victoria as are their northern Bantu neighbours, the Luhya and Kisii who constitute another 21% of Kenyas people. Nilo Hamilies—the Masai, Samburu, and Turkana together with the Kalkenjin (Kipsigis, Nandi, Tugen, Pokot and others) accounts far 11% of the population and occupy a broadband of territory from lake Turkana in the south. Cushitic peoples, Somalis and Oromo form about 3% of the population and live in the semi-arid eastern and north­eastern parts of Kenya. The Coastal Bantu, Miyikenla, Pokomo, Taita and Taveta compose 6% of the population. While the Kikuyu, Meru, Embu and Kamba of eastern highlands (all Bantu) have a commanding 39%.

Most rural African people practice both farming and rear cattle and goat herding. The Spmalis, Turkana, Samburu, and Masai are pastoralists although Masai are turning increasingly to farming.

Each ethnic group has its own language a, distinctive element of its culture and identity. Swahili is taught in the schools and used as a common language. English is also widely spoken.

About two-thirds of the Kenyan population are Christian. Of those 28% are the members of the Roman Catholic Church and 38% are Protestants. There are a number of independent African Churches. Islam is predo­minant on the coast and in the north-east.

Non-Africans are Asians, Europeans, Arabs, most of the Asians and Africans live in urban areas.


Kenya’s economy grew rapidly in the first decade of independence. Economic growth however was accom­panied by marked inequalities and uneven development among regions. The Govt, has promoted Kenyanization of land ownership, commerce and industry. Kenya has also promoted regional economic cooperation, through partici­pation in organisation, such as the common market for eastern and southern Africa.



Environment, Biodiversity, Climate Change and Calamities

  • ‘Montreal Protocol’ is related to


  • Organisation related to ‘Red Data Book’ or ‘Red List’ is


  • Which country introduced ‘Green Army for environment conservation’ ?


  • The example of ‘Lentic Habitat’ in fresh water community is

—Ponds and Swamps

  • The term ‘brown air’ is used for

—Industrial smog

  • Periyar wildlife sanctuary is located in


  • Indravati National Park is located in


  • Which SAARC nation is considered as ‘Carbon Negative Country’ of the world ?


  • The primary source of energy in an ecosystem is

—Solar energy

  • The ‘Man and Biosphere Pro­gramme (MAB)’ by UNESCO was started in


Sports and Games

ik The most memorable moment of a presentation is

—The closing of the presentation

  • If there is no receiver, there is no


  • The translation and interpreta­tion of the message for under­standing is called


  • The formulation of message is

called                           ‘—Encoding

  • What are the two kinds of verbal communication ?

—Written and Oral

  • A conclusion made by reasoning

is called                       —Inferring

  • The study of body language is

called                           —Kinesics

  • The study of space language is

called                           —Proxemics

  • Oral communication is also called

—Interpersonal communication

  • First step of preparing oral presentation is to determine the

—Purpose [1]

  • Greenfield Stadium is located in


  • How many players can play in a

team of Basketball ?          —Five

  • Durand Cup and Santosh Trophy are Indian tournaments of


  • International Migrants Day is

observed on         —December 18

  • Jnanpith award in India is given

for outstanding work in the field of        —Literature

  • ‘The Substance and the Shadow’ is the autobiography of

—Dilip Kumar

  • Firewall is used in communica­tion Network/System for protec­tion from

—Unauthorized attack

  • FTP stands for

—File Transfer Protocol

  • The ship building yard— Mazgaon Dock is located in


  • Where is the headquarters of

United Nations Industrial Deve­lopment Organisation (UNIDO) located ?      —Vienna (Austria)

  • Institute of Indian Film and Television is located at


  • Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana is associated with

—Continuous power supply to rural India

  • India’s largest e-commerce company is


Continued from Page 74

What to do when a wind-bag insists on thrusting his verbosity on me ? Or wants to have the last word ? Interrupts when you talk or goes on repeating himself, insulting your intelligence ? On many occasions have I resisted the temptation of saying shut up. But I don’t know how much longer I can hold myself back.

I will hold on to my be-good- thing because the impression is gathering ground that rudeness pays.

It gets things done; it gets you quic- service; it permits you to do mar things which good manners forbic Freedom is, thus, turned into liberty

Are jangled nerves and bac temper any substitute of a harmo­nious life ? Will it not make life smooth and pleasant without bile ?

Politeness cannot be as taxing, and as hard and hurtling. If there i- anything we need badly today, in the rush and cut-throat competition or life, it is conduct which rounds off the roughness of character and chisels i: into harmony.

The choice is between curtnes? and courtesy; bad and good manner? and between politeness and insolence Politeness consists in treating other- just as you love to be treated yourself It is kindness softly expressed.

Discourtesy reveals a cluster or bad qualities like vanity, ignorance, indolence, stupidity, distraction o: thought and contempt of others feelings.

Courtesy is good sense combined with good nature-a little self-denial for the sake of others, especially for those we live with.

Marriage, for example, is a delicate and difficult relationship. It needs tact and patience. And loads of politeness. The wife needs it from the husband and vice-versa. The irate, tired ‘wife does not need roughness. She needs gift of sweet word, wrap­ped in a ribbon of courtesy.

TJrat is why it is defined as benevolence in small things. The husband who takes a wee-bit of care of his wife’s tea at party, shows this in practice.

Similarly, the husband who opens the door for her shows his ‘courtesy’. There are forms of poli­teness. One says : “Look! How good I am.” The other says “I will make you happy.”

Formalities are not courtesy which ought to be natural and unstudied in the informality of two dear friends. It shows an amiable disposition in trifles.

It is a desire to bring about in words and actions that by which we please others. In other words, it is a great greaser of harmony and happi­ness.



[1]      Which team emerged the cham­

pion of ICC under-19 World Cup-2016 ? —West Indies

  • Bhim Rao Ambedkar Inter­

national Sports Stadium is located at       —Faizabad

  • Author of the book ‘One-day Wonders’ is

—Sunil Gavaskar

  • The book ‘Ashes Diary 2015’ has been written by

—Michael Clarke

  • Which nation emerged the over­

all champion of 12th South Asian Games ?             —India

  • Which team won the Hockey India League-2016 crown ?

—Punjab Warriors

  • Front Crawl, Spring board, Butter fly etc., are the terms associated with


Indian polity and constitution

Indian Polity and
Indian National
History and Culture
of India
  • In which article of the Indian

Constitution is the provision of Election Commission men­tioned ?   —Article 324

  • Age of voting was reduced from 21 years to 18 years by which Constitutional Amendment Act ?

—61st Constitutional Amendment


  • Which Article of the Indian Constitution was amended to reduce the voting age from 21 years to 18 years in India ?

—Article 326

  • Who can be appointed as the Chairperson of National Human Rights Council ?

—A retired Chief Justice of India

  • The Chairperson of the Central Vigilance Commission is appoin­ted by the President of India on the recommendation of a Com­mittee comprising the Prime Minister as its head, Union Home Minister and

—Leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha

in Who was the Chairman of Advisory Committee of Funda­mental Rights and Minorities constituted by the Constituent Assembly

—Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

  • Which committee recommended for three tier Panchayati Raj system in India ?

—Balwant Rai Mehta Committee

  • The ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution have been taken from the

—French Constitution

  • A person can remain a member of the Council of Ministers with­out being a member of the Parliament for*”

—Six months

★ Which Article of the Indian Con­stitution deals with the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ?

—Article 131

  • Who is known as the ‘Bismark of India’ ?

—Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

  • In 1939 Subhash Chandra Bose was elected as President of the Indian National Congress beat­ing

—Pattabhai Sitharamayya

  • Which commission was called the White Men Commission ?

—Simon Commission

  • Where did the Congress launch the Quit India Movement on August 8,1942 ?


  • Shaheed Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt threw bombs in the Central Assembly Hall, New Delhi on April 8,1929 in protest of the

—Public Safety Bill

  • Shankaran Nair resigned from the Viceroy’s Executive Council in protest of

—Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

  • ‘Servants of India Society’ was founded in 1905 A.D. by

—Gopal Krishna Gokhale

  • Who addressed Mahatma Gandhi as Rashtra Pita (Father of Nation) for the first time ?

—Subhash Chandra Bose

  • Who was the writer of the book, “The History of Congress” ?

—Pattabhi Sittaramayya

  • The Raksha Bandhan Day was observed on October 16, 1905 to protest the British government’s decision of

—Partition of Bengal

  • In Mauryan administration, the head of treasury was called


  • According to Megasthenes the

administration of Pataliputra was in the hands of a commission consisting of —30 members

  • The excavations at Chanhudaro were directed by

—J. H. Mackay

  • The Smritis of Yajnavalkya, Narada and Katyayana were written during the —Gupta age
  • Who was the author of the book ‘Mrichchkatika’ ?


  • Which great social reformer wrote the books, Karma Yoga, Raja Yoga and Jnyana Yoga ?

—Swami Vivekanand

  • Al-Beruni, Firdausi and Utbi were the great literary figures of the court of

—Mahmud Ghaznavi

  • Mughal ruler Babur’s auto­biography called ‘Tuzuk-i- Baburi’ was originally written in

’’               —Turkish language

  • Who was the first Governor General of the British East India Company ?

—Warren Hastings

  • ‘Ashtrapradhan’ was a council of ministers in the

—Maratha administration

  • Economic Survey in India is published by

—Union Ministry of Finance

  • After deducting grants for the creation of capital assets from revenue deficit, we arrive at

—Effective revenue defici;

Science &Technology
  • Index ‘Residex’ is associated

with                         —Land Prices

  • National Institute of Entre­preneurship and Small Business Development is situated at


  • What is India’s rank in the Global Corruption Perceptions Index-2015 ?

—76th place

  • Equilibrium price in the market is determined by the

—Equality between marginal cost and marginal revenue

  • Internal economies arise when

—There is expansion in an industry

  • Gross National Product (GNP) without Depreciation Allowance is called

—Net National Product

  • Union Budget 2016-17 raised Service Tax rate to 15% by imposing 0-5 per cent

—Krishi Kalayan Cess

  • The headquarters of SIDBI is located in



(India and the World)

  • Lagoon is a stretch of water

—Partly or fully separated from the main sea

  • The length of 1° latitude on the ground is equal to

—111 km

  • The Western side of Equatorial Pacific Ocean shows high tem­perature due to

—South equatorial current

  • Narmada Valley is an example of

—Rift Valley

  • Sunderban Delta is formed by the rivers

—Ganga and Brahmaputra

  • 10° channel is located between —Little Andman and Car Nicobar
  • Pulicat lake is located in

—Tamil Nadu

  • The longest continental Railway system in the world is

—Trans Siberian Railway


  • Banihal Pass connects Srinagar with


  • Sandstone, Limestone and Shale are examples of

—Sedimentary rock

  • Animal protein is called first class protein because it is

—Rich in essential amino acids

  • Outside the nucleus DNA is found in


  • The least penetrating power ray

is                                         —a-ray

  • The maximum fixation of solar energy is done by

—Green plants

  • Where is the image of an object formed in human eye ?


  • Which explosive material is called ‘Nobel oil’ ?


  • In human body, vitamin A is stored in the


  • Cetane number is used as a quality parameter mainly for


  • The number of colours contained in the sunlight is


  • Celcius and Fahrenheit thermo­

meters would show same read­ings at                     40°

  • Which type of agriculture is suitable for high land area of equatorial region ?

—Plantation agriculture

  • The UP council of Agricultural Research is located at


  • The inflorescence of sugarcane is


  • What is the inflorescence of the wheat crop ?



  • Pitambari (RYSK-05-02) is a variety of


  • Central Soil and Material Research Centre is located in

—New Delhi

  • Fruits’ cultivation is also known

as                                —Pomology

  • The most suitable fertilizer for foliar application to crops is


  • Powder mildew disease is asso­ciated with


  • Where is the headquarters of the United Nations Food and Agri­culture Organisation located ?

—Rome (Italy)